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What is angioplasty?
It is a procedure followed by a vascular surgeon when there is a blockage of the blood vessel, especially a coronary vessel. The procedure involves expanding or unblocking of the blood vessel. Different types of treatment are used and most commonly used are Ballon angioplasty and Stenting

How does coronary artery disease develop?
Coronary arteries supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscles . Narrowing of one or more coronary arteries due to building up of the Cholestrol plaque in the walls of these arteries result in Coronary artery disease (CAD. This is a very dangerous health condition as the building of the plaque in the arteries make the supply of the blood to the heart inadequate.

The reasons for accelerating of the CAD can be

  •  High blood pressure
  •  Smoking
  • Elevated cholesterol level
  • Diabetes

Tests performed for proper Diagnosis

Doctors review the medical history of the patient before performing any surgical repair of the artery
Your Doctor will order tests to show how much plaque has built up in your arteries. These tests can help your doctor determine whether you need an angioplasty or some other form of treatment. The choice of test depends on the blood vessel in question and not all of the tests need to be used for every situation.

These tests may include:

  • Pulse volume recordings (PVRs)
  • Duplex ultrasound
  • Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan

The Procedure:-

For the diagnose and treatment of cardiovascular conditions, the process of Cardiac catheterization is followed. In Cardiac catheterization, a long thin pliable tube called a catheter is inserted in an artery or vein in your groin (upper thigh), neck or arm and threaded through your blood vessels to your heart.
There are different ways of guidance for the correct positioning of the catheter.

  1. Dye-The dye can show whether a waxy substance called plaque (plaque) has built up inside your coronary arteries. Plaque can narrow or block the arteries and restrict blood flow to your heart. For example, doctors may put a special type of dye in the catheter. The dye will flow through your bloodstream to your heart. Then, your doctor will take x-ray pictures of your heart. The dye will make your coronary (heart) arteries visible on the pictures. This test is called coronary angiography
  2. Doctors also can use ultrasound during cardiac catheterization to see blockages in the coronary arteries. Ultrasound uses sound waves to create detailed pictures of the heart’s blood vessels.
    The coronary angioplasty is mostly performed in a room called a catheterisation laboratory because the room is well equipped with a high resolution TV to monitor the whole procedure and guide the doctor with proper treatment.

Once the diagnose is done, cardiac catheterization is performed as part of angioplasty. Medications are given for relaxation before the surgery is done, and then the doctor will numb the site, in most caes it is groin (upper thigh) or arm, where the catheter will be inserted with local anesthesia. A small cut will be made in the numb site and the surgeon places a catheter through the cut into an artery. It is carefully moved up to your neck to the blockage in your carotid artery. Fluoroscopy is to use to guide the correct position of the catheter through the blood vessels to the blocked artery. In fluoroscopy A small amount iodine-based dye is injected through the catheter and this is pictured in the Xray camera during this whole procedure.

Types of Angioplasty:

  • Balloon angioplasty
    A specially designed catheter with a tiny balloon on its tip is maneuvered correctly to the blocked artery. It works in such a way, that it is inflated so that the blocked artery is expanded and the blood flow to the heart is optimized.
  • Carotid artery angioplasty with Stenting
    In addition to the simple balloon angioplasty, stents can also be used for the unblocking of the blocked artery. The above process of Balloon angioplasty is processed and after the catheter is in places and balloon is inflated, then A stent is placed in the artery. A stent is cylindrical like tiny tube made of thin metal mesh framework used to open flatten the artery.
  •  Laser angioplasty –
    This is also one of the kind on angioplasty. Herein, a laser is used to vapurise the blockage in the artery.

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