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Knee Replacement

knee replacement in new delhi

Knee Replacement

Ligaments are bands of connective tissue that connects bone to other bones. It surrounds a joint to give the support and limits the movement .When the ligament of the knee gets severely  injured due to a reason, then the ligament gets torn off. This results in limiting the movement of the joint. A torn ligament affects knee movement by disabling the person to turn or twist his leg. For proper functioning of the knee again, the repair of ligament is done which is reconstructed with surgery.

Anatomy:

Joints are formed where bones meet. The knee joint is the largest joint and enables most of our daily activities.

The most important parts of the knee are:-

Femur- The lower end of the thighbone

  • Tibia- The upper end of the shinbone
  • Patella- Knee cap
  • Menisci- A curved part of cartilage in the knees which is used to absorb the shocks and are located between the femur and tibia.
  •  A type of tissue that covers the surface of a bone at a joint and protects the bone . Cartilage helps reduce the friction of movement within a joint.
  • synovial membrane- It is a thin lining which covers the knee. This membrane releases a fluid that lubricates the cartilage, reducing friction to nearly zero in a healthy knee.

All of the above mentioned parts together work in a group and form an important structure of the knee.

Causes

The most common cause of chronic knee pain and disability is arthritis. There are many types of arthritis but most common type of arthritis are:-

  • Osteoarthritis. This is an age-related “wear and tear” type of arthritis. It usually occurs in people 50 years of age and older, but may occur in younger people, too. The cartilage that cushions the bones of the knee softens and wears away. The bones then rub against one another, causing knee pain and stiffness.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. This is a disease in which the synovial membrane that surrounds the joint becomes inflamed and thickened. This chronic inflammation can damage the cartilage and eventually cause cartilage loss, pain, and stiffness. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common form of a group of disorders termed “inflammatory arthritis.”
  • Post-traumatic arthritis. This can follow a serious knee injury. Fractures of the bones surrounding the knee or tears of the knee ligaments may damage the cartilage over time, causing knee pain and limiting knee function.

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Procedure:-

In knee replacement the damaged bone of the lower thighbone is replaced with prosthesis.

In knee replacement, resurfacing of the surfaces of the bone is done. The first part of your knee that is exposed during the procedure is your kneecap, called the patella.  The first bone that is resurfaced is the Femur . The damaged bone and the cartilage is cut away. The femur is resurfaced to attach the artificial knee. the artificial knee is made up of plastic an metal . bone cements used to seal the the metal femoral component  into place . The next bone resurfaced is your tibia, or shinbone. The shinbone is resurfaced fit the metal and plastic tibial components. The kneecap is resurfaced to attach the patellar component that rubs against the thighbone.

It is important to begin moving the new joint after surgery. A physiotherapist is appointed to give proper exercise to the knee joint .

Recovery:-

Once the surgery is completed, the recovery process takes a while.

The recovery process will depend on the type of anesthesia given. The doctor ensures that the patient’s medical parameters are stable. The breathing, blood pressure and pulse of the patient’s are checked. You may be given crutches and a knee immobilizer before you go home.

 


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